Assisted reproductive technology (ART) process involves using various methods to help couples conceive a child, such as IVF or intrauterine insemination.
In a world where more and more couples are struggling to conceive a child naturally, assisted reproductive technology has become a life-saving solution. In this blog post, we will discuss the different types of assisted reproductive technology and how they can help couples conceive a child.
What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to fertility treatments that help couples who are struggling to conceive a child naturally.
There are many different types of ART, and each type has its advantages and disadvantages. The most common type of ART is in-vitro fertilization (IVF).
Different methods of ART
The different methods of ART are:
- In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
- Gamete intrafallopian transfer
- Zygote intrafallopian transfer
- Embryo or oocyte donation
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Fertility drugs
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
- Gestational surrogacy
In-vitro fertilization (IVF)
IVF is the most common type of assisted reproductive technology. It involves retrieving eggs from a woman’s ovaries and fertilizing them with a man’s sperm in a laboratory. The fertilized eggs are then implanted into the woman’s uterus.
IVF process usually starts with ovarian stimulation followed by egg retrieval, fertilization, in vitro embryo culture, and ultimately embryo transfer. The process is not without complications, the most significant of which are multiple pregnancies and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Steps of IVF procedure:
- Ovulation is induced by injectable gonadotropins, which stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs.
- Egg retrieval is performed transvaginally under ultrasound guidance 36 hours after the last gonadotropin injection.
- The eggs are then fertilized with sperm in the laboratory, and the resulting embryos are cultured for three to five days.
- One or two embryos are then transferred into the uterus, and any remaining embryos may be frozen for future use.
- Pregnancy is then monitored with blood tests and ultrasounds.
IVF is a complex and expensive procedure, but it has a high success rate. IVF success rates vary depending on many factors, such as the age of the patient, the cause of infertility, and the number of embryos transferred.
In general, IVF success rates are about 40% for women under 35 years old and about 20% for women over 40 years old.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are two of the most common assisted reproductive technologies used today. IUI involves placing sperm directly into the uterus. It can use either the husband’s sperm or the donor’s sperm.
The steps of IUI are:
- 0.3 ml of the sperm is placed in a small plastic tube.
- The tube is inserted into the woman’s vagina and pushed through the cervix into the uterus.
- The sperm is then released into the uterus.
- IUI can be done with or without fertility drugs. Fertility drugs are often used to increase the chances of success.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is a type of assisted reproductive technology. It involves placing sperm and eggs into the woman’s fallopian tubes.
GIFT is usually done with IVF. The eggs are retrieved from the ovaries and placed in a dish with the sperm. The eggs are then placed in the fallopian tubes. GIFT is considered to be a less invasive procedure than IVF.
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) is a type of assisted reproductive technology. It involves placing fertilized eggs (zygotes) into the woman’s fallopian tubes. This is done using a laparoscope, which is a thin, telescope-like instrument.
ZIFT is similar to in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, in IVF, the fertilized eggs are placed in a dish in the laboratory. With ZIFT, the fertilized eggs are placed directly into the woman’s fallopian tubes.
ZIFT is often used when the man has a low sperm count or when the woman has a blocked or damaged fallopian tube. ZIFT is also used if the couple has had several failed IVF cycles.
ZIFT is a relatively new procedure. It was first used in the United States in 1988. Since then, it has been used to help thousands of couples conceive.
If you and your partner are having trouble conceiving, ask your doctor if ZIFT is right for you.
Embryo or oocyte donation
It is another fertility treatment option for couples who may not be able to conceive on their own. This can be done through in vitro fertilization (IVF), where eggs are harvested from a donor and then fertilized with the sperm of the couple receiving the donation. The resulting embryos are then implanted into the uterus of the receiving woman.
While embryo donation is less common than sperm or egg donation, it can be a successful fertility treatment for couples who have difficulty conceiving. One study found that embryo donation resulted in a live birth rate of 36% for couples who had undergone IVF.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
It is another fertility treatment that can be used in conjunction with IVF. ICSI is a procedure where a single sperm is injected into an egg. This can be done if the male partner has a low sperm count or if the sperm are not of good quality.
ICSI can increase the success rate of IVF, as it can help fertilize eggs that would otherwise not be fertilized. One study found that ICSI increased the live birth rate of IVF by 14%.
Fertility drugs are often used in conjunction with IVF to increase the chances of conception. These drugs work by stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple eggs.
Fertility drugs can increase the chances of conceiving twins or triplets, which may not be ideal for all couples. However, fertility drugs can be a successful way to increase the chances of conceiving for couples who are struggling to conceive.
It is another fertility treatment option for couples who may not be able to conceive on their own. In this arrangement, a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another couple. The baby is not biologically related to the surrogate mother.
Gestational surrogacy can be a successful fertility treatment for couples who have difficulty conceiving. One study found that gestational surrogacy resulted in a live birth rate of 37%.
What are the advantages of ART?
- The main advantage of ART is that it can help couples who are struggling to conceive a child naturally.
- ART can also help couples who have a history of infertility or couples who have a genetic disorder that makes it difficult to conceive a child.
What are the disadvantages of ART?
- The main disadvantage of ART is that it is a costly and invasive procedure.
- ART can also be emotionally draining for couples who are struggling to conceive a child.
How does ART work?
- The first step in the ART process is to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs.
- Once the eggs have been retrieved, they are fertilized with sperm in a laboratory.
- The fertilized eggs are then transferred to the uterus, where they will implant and grow into a baby.
What are the success rates of ART?
The success rates of ART vary depending on the type of procedure, the age of the parents, and the underlying cause of infertility.
In general, the success rates of ART are about 30-40%.
Costs of ART procedures
It ranges from $5000 to $15,000, depending on the type of procedure.
ART is not covered by most insurance plans, so couples must pay for the procedure out of pocket.
Are there any risks associated with ART?
There are some risks associated with ART, including multiple births, premature birth, low birth weight, and infection.
However, the risks of ART are generally low, and most couples who undergo the procedure will have a healthy baby.
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